V. Utgikar, N. Chaudhary, A. Koeniger, H. Tabak, J. Haines et al., Toxicity of metals and metal mixtures: analysis of concentration and time dependence for zinc and copper, Water Research, vol.38, issue.17, pp.3651-3658, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.watres.2004.05.022

J. Ho and A. Ho, Environmental lead exposure induces changes in the heme biosynthetic pathway, Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality, vol.12, issue.3, pp.245-248, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2256(1997)12:3<245::AID-TOX7>3.0.CO;2-8

Ø. Mikkelsen, S. Skogvold, and K. Schrøder, Continouos Heavy Metal Monitoring System for Application in River and Seawater, Electroanalysis, vol.37, issue.5-6, pp.431-439, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.200403177

S. El-hasani, S. Dhaheri, M. El-maazawi, and M. Kamal, Polarographic and voltammetric determination of some toxic heavy metal ions in the treated wastewater at Abu-Dhabi, U.A.E., Water Science and Technology, vol.40, issue.7, pp.67-74, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00585-5

H. Diederich, S. Meyer, and F. Scholz, Automatic adsorptive stripping voltammetry at thin-mercury film electrodes (TMFE), Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol.320, issue.8-9, pp.670-675, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00323478

M. Tercier, J. Buffle, and F. Graziottin, A Novel Voltammetric In-Situ Profiling System for ContinuousReal-Time Monitoring of Trace Elements in Natural Waters, Electroanalysis, vol.46, issue.6, pp.355-363, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4109(199805)10:6<355::AID-ELAN355>3.0.CO;2-F

J. Wang, Stripping Analysis at Bismuth Electrodes: A Review, Electroanalysis, vol.37, issue.15-16, pp.1341-1346, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.200403270

A. Goodwin, A. Lawrence, C. Banks, F. Wantz, D. Omanovi? et al., On-site monitoring of trace levels of free manganese in sea water via sonoelectroanalysis using a boron-doped diamond electrode, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.533, issue.2, pp.141-145, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.009

E. Achterberg, C. Van-den-berg, M. Boussemart, and W. Davison, Speciation and cycling of trace metals in Esthwaite Water: A productive English lake with seasonal deep-water anoxia, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.61, issue.24, pp.5233-5253, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00316-5

I. Luther, . Gw, Z. Wilk, R. Ryans, and A. Meyerson, On the speciation of metals in the water column of a polluted estuary, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.17, issue.12, pp.535-542, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-326X(86)90565-5

Ø. Mikkelsen, S. Skogvold, and K. Schrøder, Continouos Heavy Metal Monitoring System for Application in River and Seawater, Electroanalysis, vol.37, issue.5-6, pp.431-439, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.200403177

C. Borgo, R. Ferrari, L. Colpini, C. Costa, M. Baesso et al., Voltammetric response of a copper(II) complex incorporated in silica-modified carbon-paste electrode, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.385, issue.1-3, pp.103-109, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00773-9

Y. Bonfil, M. Brand, and E. Kirowa-eisner, Determination of sub-??gl???1 concentrations of copper by anodic stripping voltammetry at the gold electrode, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.387, issue.1, pp.85-95, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00066-5

O. Cavalleri, A. Bittner, H. Kind, and K. Kern, Copper Electrodeposition on Alkanethiolate Covered Gold Electrodes*, Zeitschrift f??r Physikalische Chemie, vol.208, issue.Part_1_2, pp.107-136, 1999.
DOI : 10.1524/zpch.1999.208.Part_1_2.107

J. Wang, J. Lu, S. Hocevar, P. Farias, and B. Ogorevc, Bismuth-Coated Carbon Electrodes for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry, Analytical Chemistry, vol.72, issue.14, pp.3218-3222, 2000.
DOI : 10.1021/ac000108x

F. Cordon, S. Ramírez, and G. Gordillo, Adsorption and electrochemical reduction of Co(II)-dimethylglyoxime on mercury, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.534, issue.2, pp.131-141, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0728(02)01156-7

A. Ensafi and K. Zarei, Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cadmium, nickel and cobalt in water samples by adsorptive voltammetry using ammonium 2-amino-cyclopentene dithiocarboxylate as a chelating agent, Talanta, vol.52, issue.3, pp.435-440, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0039-9140(00)00334-9

E. Hutton, J. Van-elteren, B. Ogorevc, and M. Smyth, Validation of bismuth film electrode for determination of cobalt and cadmium in soil extracts using ICP?MS, Talanta, vol.63, issue.4, pp.849-855, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.talanta.2003.12.038

J. Wang and J. Lu, Bismuth film electrodes for adsorptive stripping voltammetry of trace nickel, Electrochemistry Communications, vol.2, issue.6, pp.390-393, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1388-2481(00)00045-X

G. Kefala, A. Economou, A. Voulgaropoulos, and M. Sofoniou, A study of bismuth-film electrodes for the detection of trace metals by anodic stripping voltammetry and their application to the determination of Pb and Zn in tapwater and human hair, Talanta, vol.61, issue.5, pp.603-610, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0039-9140(03)00350-3

Q. Chi, W. Göpel, T. Ruzgas, L. Gorton, and P. Heiduschka, Effects of pretreatments and modifiers on electrochemical properties of carbon paste electrodes, Electroanalysis, vol.4, issue.5, pp.357-365, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.1140090502

K. Brainina, I. Kubysheva, E. Miroshnikova, S. Parshakov, Y. Maksimov et al., Small-size sensors for the in-field stripping voltammetric analysis of water, Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, vol.38, issue.3, pp.260-271, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/fact.10006

Ø. Mikkelsen and K. Schrøder, Dental Amalgam in Voltammetry. Some Preliminary Results, Analytical Letters, vol.33, issue.7, pp.3253-3269, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/00032719.2000.10399499

Ø. Mikkelsen, K. Schrøder, and T. Aarhaug, Dental Amalgam, an Alternative Electrode Material for Voltammetric Analyses of Pollutants, Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, vol.66, issue.3, pp.465-472, 2001.
DOI : 10.1135/cccc20010465

Ø. Mikkelsen and K. Schrøder, Voltammetry using a dental amalgam electrode for heavy metal monitoring of wines and spirits, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.458, issue.1, pp.249-256, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01606-3

I. Pi?eta, G. Billon, J. Fischer, and M. Wartel, Solid Microelectrodes for In Situ Voltammetric Measurements, Electroanalysis, vol.15, issue.17, pp.1389-1396, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.200302669

M. Tercier, N. Parthasarathy, and J. Bufle, Reproducible, reliable and rugged Hg-plated Ir-based microelectrode for in situ measurements in natural waters, Electroanalysis, vol.5, issue.1, pp.55-63, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.1140070106

J. Jiang, B. Wu, C. Cha, and R. Zhai, Voltammetry Without Adding Supporting Electrolyte Using a Solid Polymer Electrolyte Composite Microelectrode, Electroanalysis, vol.18, issue.5, pp.343-346, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4109(199804)10:5<343::AID-ELAN343>3.0.CO;2-V

F. Matysik, P. Gläser, and G. Werner, Analytical possibilities of microelectrode use for stripping voltammetry, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol.118, issue.8-9, pp.646-649, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00323472

P. Norouzi, M. Ganjali, A. Sepehri, and M. Ghorbani, Novel method for fast determination of ultra trace amounts of timolol maleate by continuous cyclic voltammetry at Au microelectrode in flowing injection systems, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol.110, issue.2, pp.239-245, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.snb.2005.02.001

M. Baldo, C. Bragato, G. Mazzocchin, and D. S. , Lead and copper deposition from dilute solutions onto carbon disc microelectrodes. Assessment of quantification procedures by anodic stripping voltammetry, Electrochimica Acta, vol.43, issue.23, pp.3413-3422, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-4686(98)00087-5

G. Billon, . Van-den, and C. Berg, Gold and Silver Micro-Wire Electrodes for Trace Analysis of Metals, Electroanalysis, vol.16, issue.19, pp.1583-1591, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/elan.200302990

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00326273

A. Wieckowski, B. Hayden, and A. Hodgson, Interfacial electrochemistry, theory, experiments, and applications. Marcel Dekker, Basel 41, J Phys Condens Matter, vol.11, pp.8397-8415, 1999.

F. Assaf, A. Zaky, A. El-rehim, and S. , Cyclic voltammetric studies of the electrochemical behaviour of copper???silver alloys in NaOH solution, Applied Surface Science, vol.187, issue.1-2, pp.18-27, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-4332(01)00462-7

M. Hansen and K. Anderko, Constitution of binary alloys 18, Ciszkowska M, Stojek Z J Electroanal Chem, vol.466, pp.129-143, 1958.

C. Colombo, . Van-den, and C. Berg, Simultaneous determination of several trace metals in seawater using cathodic stripping voltammetry with mixed ligands, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.337, issue.1, pp.29-40, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00401-1

M. Bodini and D. Sawyer, Voltammetric determination of nitrate ion at parts-per-billion levels, Analytical Chemistry, vol.49, issue.3, pp.485-489, 1977.
DOI : 10.1021/ac50011a037

R. Davenport and D. Johnson, Voltammetric determination of nitrate and nitrite ions using a rotating cadmium disk electrode, Analytical Chemistry, vol.45, issue.11, pp.1979-1980, 1973.
DOI : 10.1021/ac60333a038

J. Genders, D. Hartsough, and D. Hobbs, Electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in alkaline nuclear waste solutions, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol.134, issue.1, pp.1-9, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00248182

S. Cattarin, Electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxyanions in 1 M sodium hydroxide solutions at silver, copper and CuInSe2 electrodes, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol.35, issue.11, pp.1077-1081, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01029588

M. Fedurco, P. Kedzierzawski, and J. Augustynski, Effect of Multivalent Cations upon Reduction of Nitrate Ions at the Ag Electrode, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol.146, issue.7, pp.2569-2572, 1999.
DOI : 10.1149/1.1391973

A. Fogg, S. Scullion, T. Edmonds, and B. Birch, Direct reductive amperometric determination of nitrate at a copper electrode formed in situ in a capillary-fill sensor device, The Analyst, vol.116, issue.6, pp.573-579, 1991.
DOI : 10.1039/an9911600573

M. Shibata, K. Yoshida, and N. Furuya, Electrochemical Synthesis of Urea at Gas-Diffusion Electrodes, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol.145, issue.7, pp.2348-2353, 1998.
DOI : 10.1149/1.1838641

F. Bouamrane, A. Tadjeddine, J. Butler, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-clement, Electrochemical study of diamond thin films in neutral and basic solutions of nitrate, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.405, issue.1-2, pp.95-99, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0728(95)04388-8

R. Tenne, K. Patel, K. Hashimoto, and A. Fujishima, Efficient electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia using conductive diamond film electrodes, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.347, issue.1-2, pp.409-415, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0728(93)80105-Q

D. Pletcher and Z. Poorabedi, The reduction of nitrate at a copper cathode in aqueous acid, Electrochimica Acta, vol.24, issue.12, pp.1253-1256, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-4686(79)87081-4

W. Albery, B. Hagged, J. P. Ch, M. Pritchard, and L. Svanberg, The packed bed wall-jet electrode and the determination of NO3???, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, vol.188, issue.1-2, pp.257-263, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0728(85)80066-8

A. Fogg, P. Scullion, and T. Edmonds, Direct reductive amperometric determination of nitrate at a copper electrode formed in situ in a capillary-fill sensor device, The Analyst, vol.116, issue.6, pp.573-579, 1991.
DOI : 10.1039/an9911600573

R. Davenport and D. Johnson, Determination of nitrate and nitrite by forced-flow liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, Analytical Chemistry, vol.46, issue.13, pp.1971-1978, 1974.
DOI : 10.1021/ac60349a044

P. Kvarackheliya and M. T. Sh, Voltamperometry of nitrate and iodate ions on rotating disc electrodes from cupper-cadmium alloy, Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, vol.47, issue.10, pp.2615-2619, 1982.
DOI : 10.1135/cccc19822615

J. Krista, M. Kopanica, and L. Novotný, Voltammetric Determination of Nitrates Using Silver Electrodes, Electroanalysis, vol.11, issue.3, pp.199-204, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4109(200002)12:3<199::AID-ELAN199>3.0.CO;2-N

J. Davis, M. Moorcroft, S. Wilkins, R. Compton, and M. Cardosi, Electrochemical detection of nitrate and nitrite at a copper modified electrode, The Analyst, vol.125, issue.4, pp.737-741, 2000.
DOI : 10.1039/a909762g