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Integration of spatio-temporal variations of surface metabolomes and epibacterial communities highlights the importance of copper stress as a major factor shaping host-microbiota interactions within a Mediterranean seaweed holobiont

Abstract : Abstract Background Although considered as holobionts, macroalgae and their surface microbiota share intimate interactions that are still poorly understood. Little is known on the effect of environmental parameters on the close relationships between the host and its surface-associated microbiota, and even more in a context of coastal pollutions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to decipher the impact of local environmental parameters, especially trace metal concentrations, on an algal holobiont dynamics using the Phaeophyta Taonia atomaria as a model. Through a multidisciplinary multi-omics approach combining metabarcoding and untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics, the epibacterial communities and the surface metabolome of T. atomaria were monitored along a spatio-temporal gradient in the bay of Toulon (Northwestern Mediterranean coast) and its surrounding. Indeed, this geographical area displays a well-described trace metal gradient particularly relevant to investigate the effect of such pollutants on marine organisms. Results Epibacterial communities of T. atomaria exhibited a high specificity whatever the five environmentally contrasted collecting sites investigated on the NW Mediterranean coast. By integrating metabarcoding and metabolomics analyses, the holobiont dynamics varied as a whole. During the occurrence period of T. atomaria , epibacterial densities and α -diversity increased while the relative proportion of core communities decreased. Pioneer bacterial colonizers constituted a large part of the specific and core taxa, and their decrease might be linked to biofilm maturation through time. Then, the temporal increase of the Roseobacter was proposed to result from the higher temperature conditions, but also the increased production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) at the algal surface which could constitute of the source of carbon and sulfur for the catabolism pathways of these taxa. Finally, as a major result of this study, copper concentration constituted a key factor shaping the holobiont system. Thus, the higher expression of carotenoids suggested an oxidative stress which might result from an adaptation of the algal surface metabolome to high copper levels. In turn, this change in the surface metabolome composition could result in the selection of particular epibacterial taxa. Conclusion We showed that associated epibacterial communities were highly specific to the algal host and that the holobiont dynamics varied as a whole. While temperature increase was confirmed to be one of the main parameters associated to Taonia dynamics, the originality of this study was highlighting copper-stress as a major driver of seaweed-epibacterial interactions. In a context of global change, this study brought new insights on the dynamics of a Mediterranean algal holobiont submitted to heavy anthropic pressures.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 12, 2021 - 9:10:00 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, November 14, 2021 - 3:02:31 AM

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Benoît Paix, Nicolas Layglon, Christophe Le Poupon, Sébastien D’onofrio, Benjamin Misson, et al.. Integration of spatio-temporal variations of surface metabolomes and epibacterial communities highlights the importance of copper stress as a major factor shaping host-microbiota interactions within a Mediterranean seaweed holobiont. Microbiome, BioMed Central, 2021, 9 (1), ⟨10.1186/s40168-021-01124-8⟩. ⟨hal-03426129⟩

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